Mr. Sundown is a 78-year old African Nova Scotian who is a patient in an internal medicine clinical unit at the Halifax Infirmary. He has a variety of serious medical conditions including diabetes, coronary artery disease, and advanced COPD. He is experiencing progressive respiratory failure on the basis of a difficult-to-treat pneumonia. Mr. Sundown has Alzheimer’s disease and, when out of hospital, lives at home in Dartmouth, where he is totally dependent on his family and visiting VON nurses.
During this admission, the clinical unit nurses and attending physician are having a difficult time communicating with him. On some occasions, Mr. Sundown appears to recognize his wife and children and speaks a few seemingly appropriate words.
Mrs. Sundown and her children make regular visits to the hospital. Mrs. Sundown is a physically healthy person. She is shy and tends to defer in her decision-making to her eldest son, Peter, who has power-of-attorney for both his parents. He lives in Toronto and usually visits home twice yearly. There are two other siblings, Don and Paulette, who live in Halifax.
Mrs. Sundown and Peter are members of a fundamentalist faith. Mr. Sundown is a life-long agnostic, while Don and Paulette attend protestant churches. They all get along pretty well as long as no one brings up religion.
At a health care team conference, there is discussion of the possibility of withholding further potential treatment (including mechanical ventilation) for Mr. Patterson whose health condition is rapidly deteriorating. The attending physician and most other members of the treatment team believe that this is in Mr. Sundown’s best interests, given his apparent low quality of life and what they perceive to be his potential for prolonged suffering.
On a review of Mr. Sundown’s health record, the charge nurse notices that Peter Sundown is listed as the next-of-kin on the admission notes, and that an advance directive has not been made. Family members report to the attending medical resident that Mr. Sundown has not clearly indicated his wishes/ preferences for medical care and treatment at the end-of-life.
The attending physician is aware that the relevant intensive care unit is full and that there are five other very ill patients waiting for urgent admission. He calls for an ethics consult.
- What issues should be discussed during this meeting?
- Who should be present at this meeting?
- What weight should resource allocation have in this case?
Some Values and Ethics Issues to Consider
- Advance care planning and personal directives
- Substitute decision-making
- Spirituality and religious beliefs
- Resource allocation
- Respect for patient autonomy
- Respect for human dignity
- Patient-family relationships
- Quality of life
- End-of-life decision-making