102. Case: A Question from Family About Outcomes

You are caring for a patient following a severe stroke. The attending physician has been very clear with the family that it is unlikely that the patient will survive and that, if he does, it will be with very significant impairments. Still, the family takes any movement or facial change as an indication that he is improving. They are praying for his full recovery and today, at the end of your shift, the eldest child asks you when you think her father will be ready to go home.  How will you respond to the question?


Your family has strong faith convictions and a firm belief that “where there is breath, there is hope”.  Your father had a stroke unexpectedly and you found him slumped over when you came home from class.  You feel guilty because you stopped on the way home to get coffee with a friend.  The doctor said that your father’s “prognosis is poor”, but you’ve heard lots of stories about doctors being wrong. You also feel strongly that if you believe that your father will recover this will help to bring it about and that the converse is true, that if you allow yourself to think or talk about your father’s death it could cause it to happen.  So, you ask the doctor when they think your father will be able to come home. How would you respond if the physician says, “I don’t think your father will be able to go home…”?


Discussion Questions:

  • How did your response to the case shift when you read about it from a different perspective?
  • What do you see as the most important values for each person involved in the conversation?
  • What might be some of the undercurrents that influence the direction the conversation takes?
  • What makes this a difficult conversation for each participant?
  • Who else might be involved in having subsequent conversations with the family about care decisions?

References:

Barley, S. 2010. Having the difficult conversations about the end of life. The BMJ 2010; 341, published 16 September 2016 https://www.bmj.com/content/341/bmj.c4862

Lippe, M. 2018. Drawing the line between hope and false expectations. Blogpost, Reflections on Nursing Leadership. Published online 09/19/2018 https://www.reflectionsonnursingleadership.org/features/more-features/Drawing-the-line-between-hope-and-false-expectations

NSHA Library Services: Conversations about serious illness: https://library.nshealth.ca/SeriousIllness/GOC

Welsh, A. 2016. At end of life, doctors and families often differ in expectations. CBC news, published May 17, 2016. https://www.cbsnews.com/news/better-doctor-family-communication-needed-at-end-of-life-study/

Woelk, C.J. 2008. Management of Hope. Can Fam Physician; 2008 Sep. 54(9): 1243-1245 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2553443/

Advertisements

101. Case: Chatting About Hopes and Goals

You are a social worker who is part of a rehab team.  During lunch, the conversation turns to one of the patients that you and your team is working with. The patient was in a scooter accident and suffered multiple fractures. They are struggling to regain their ability to walk and can often be heard expressing their frustration. Some around the table are concerned that the patient is giving up and that they seem to have “no hope for the future” – despite the expectation that they should be able to walk again. One of your team members turns to you and says, “You seem to have a good rapport with this patient, why don’t you talk to them about this?”  This is not the first time you’ve received such a request, and you appreciate that your colleagues have recognized your skill at building rapport. But there is no extra time, or any other resources provided to you to acknowledge the contribution you are making.  How will you respond to this request?  And how might you raise this at the next team meeting?


You are 23 years old and you were in a collision while riding your scooter and are now in rehab recovering after multiple serious fractures. Rehab is a lot of effort and you aren’t experiencing the improvements you expected.  Your friends have stopped coming by to visit and you feel lonely and isolated in the hospital.  You know that the health care providers are trying their best, but you find it hard not to take your frustration out on them when they’re the only people you see most days. How will you respond the next time a team member encourages you to keep trying?


Discussion Questions:

  • How did your response to the case shift when you read about it from a different perspective?
  • What do you see as the most important values for each person involved in the conversation?
  • What are some of the values that might be in tension for the social worker in thinking through the situation?
  • What types of support might make it easier for the social worker to take on the work of having difficult conversations?
  • How do health care providers build the skills that help difficult conversations go well?

References:

Canadian Physiotherapy Association. Ethics and professionalism toolkit. https://physiotherapy.ca/ethics-and-professionalism-toolkit

Forbes Coaches Council. 14 Ways To Approach Conflict And Difficult Conversations At Work https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbescoachescouncil/2017/07/17/14-ways-to-approach-conflict-and-difficult-conversations-at-work/#698346ac3cfd

Woelk, C.J. 2008. Management of Hope. Can Fam Physician; 2008 Sep. 54(9): 1243-1245 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2553443/

100. Case: Discussion with Staff on New Scheduling

You are the manager of an outpatient clinic that serves patients from throughout the Maritimes.  Many of these patients travel for their appointments and are trying to minimize time away from work, so after a discussion with the Patient Feedback team the decision is made to open the clinic on Saturdays and Sundays on a trial basis.  It is also hoped that this will reduce wait times for appointments.  You must tell your team about this change, which you suspect will be unpopular.  How will you structure the conversation?

In addition, you need to determine a fair process for deciding who will take the weekend shifts.  Some of your staff have children, while others do not.  Several staff members have other commitments on the weekends, such as sports teams and volunteer work.  You want to approach the conversation about staffing in a way that won’t create resentments between colleagues and are wondering how to do that.


You’re the only dietician working in an outpatient clinic and you’ve got an 8-year-old child as well as a parent whom you’re caring for at home.  You’ve caught wind of a plan to open the clinic on weekends and you’re angry because you know that you will be required to work weekends, and this will reduce the time you have with your family and increase costs for caregiving.  What are you planning on saying as you go into a meeting to discuss these changes?


Discussion Questions:

  • How did your response to the case shift when you read about it from a different perspective?
  • What do you see as the most important values for each person involved in the conversation?
  • What are the ethical concerns raised by this situation?
  • Are there aspects of decision making that could have been handled differently to reduce the likelihood of having difficult conversations?
  • What sorts of supports might help this difficult conversation to go well?

References:

Danigelis, A. 2010. How to Communicate Employee Expectations Effectively https://www.inc.com/guides/2010/08/how-to-communicate-employee-expectations-effectively.html

Gooch, K. 2018. 7 healthcare leaders on conducting difficult conversations with peers. Becker’s Hospital Review, Published September 28, 2018. https://www.beckershospitalreview.com/hospital-management-administration/6-healthcare-leaders-on-conducting-difficult-conversations-with-peers.html

Forbes Coaches Council. 13 Ways Managers Can Initiate Tough Conversations With Employees. Published September 28, 2018. https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbescoachescouncil/2018/09/28/13-ways-managers-can-initiate-tough-conversations-with-employees/#196674672d9e

Hampbley, C. Managing Difficult Conversations with Practice Staff. Physicians Practice, February 9, 2017. https://www.physicianspractice.com/staff/managing-difficult-conversations-practice-staff

Ontario Medical Association.  Managing Your Medical Office Staff – An HR Guide for Physicians. Section C: Motivation and Retention. https://www.oma.org/wp-content/uploads/1_managingyourmedicalofficestaff.pdf

99. Case: Talking About an Adverse Event

You are a respiratory therapist working in a large hospital seeing a range of patients, but primarily working with the teams in the Emergency Department and ICU.  With one complex patient in ICU there was a miscommunication that resulted in improper settings being used for ventilation and this resulted in the patient having a longer-than-expected ICU stay.  You feel responsible for this and as part of the adverse event disclosure process you are going to talk to the family about it.  How will you prepare for the conversation?


Your loved one, who has dementia and COPD, is in ICU and you know that there was a mistake with their ventilator because you overheard some of the nurses talking about it.  You feel that the ICU environment is making your loved one’s dementia worse, and you’re angry that someone’s carelessness has resulted in harm to your loved one.  The nurses let you know that the respiratory therapist wants to talk to you about the incident.  You’re willing to have the conversation, but you’re tired from looking after your loved one and frustrated by your whole experience in the hospital.  What is most on your mind when you go into this conversation?


Discussion Questions:

  • How did your response to the case shift when you read about it from a different perspective?
  • What do you see as the most important values for each person involved in the conversation?
  • Why is it important to have this conversation from each person’s perspective?
  • Which values and principles are reflected in the commitment to ensuring that the conversation happens?
  • What can be done to help ensure that this is a “good” difficult conversation?

References:

Alberta Health Services. Disclosure Done Well – Early Disclosure: Unsure If Care Is Reasonable. Published March 16, 2018. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i2uEHmElX5M

Bonney, W. (2014). Medical errors: moral and ethical considerations. Journal of Hospital Administration. 3(2): 80-88. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=2ahUKEwjjwa2Z7PzgAhUV854KHa5sCPkQFjABegQIBBAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.sciedu.ca%2Fjournal%2Findex.php%2Fjha%2Farticle%2Fdownload%2F3475%2F2226&usg=AOvVaw2VCJ0K19IQYyW329XHm_C_

Brené Brown on Blame: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RZWf2_2L2v8

Canadian Patient Safety Institute. (2011). Canadian Disclosure Guidelines: being open with patients and families. CPSI. https://www.patientsafetyinstitute.ca/en/toolsResources/disclosure/Documents/CPSI%20Canadian%20Disclosure%20Guidelines.pdf

Canadian Medical Protective Association. Disclosure – Maintaining Trust. https://www.cmpa-acpm.ca/serve/docs/ela/goodpracticesguide/pages/adverse_events/Disclosure/disclosure-e.html

Canadian Medical Protective Association. Disclosing Harm from Health Care Delivery. Version 3, 2017. https://www.cmpa-acpm.ca/static-assets/pdf/advice-and-publications/handbooks/com_15_disclosure_handbook-e.pdf

Nova Scotia Health Authorities. 2017. Disclosure of Patient Safety Incidents. Patients First. http://www.nshealth.ca/sites/nshealth.ca/files/patientinformation/1448.pdf

98. Case: A Conversation About Vaccination with a New Parent

You are a nurse practitioner working in a family practice.  A first-time parent brings their child in for a 2-month checkup.  The parent seems nervous when vaccines are mentioned as a routine part of the appointment.  You ask the parent specifically about vaccination, and the parent is hesitant.  They say that they “can’t get idea of something bad happening to the baby because of the vaccination out of [their] head”.  You have a strong commitment to vaccination as a part of good health care practice and to adhering to the standard public health vaccination schedule.  How do you proceed with this conversation?


You are a first-time parent taking your 2-month-old baby into your doctor’s office for a checkup.  You are told when you arrive that the nurse practitioner, whom you’ve met before and liked, will be seeing you today.  You don’t have any concerns about your baby’s growth and development and are excited to see how much weight they’ve gained since their last appointment.   You are surprised when the nurse mentions vaccination; you had thought that you didn’t have to worry about that until the next appointment.  Since your baby was born you’ve been very aware of all the ways that they could be harmed, and you’ve been intent on avoiding all the risks you can; you have even stopped driving with your baby in the car unless absolutely necessary.  You know that the risks associated with vaccination are low but wonder if they could nonetheless be reduced or avoided somehow.  You experience the nurse’s questions about vaccination as a type of threat and feel defensive, although you also recognize that’s not the nurse’s intent.  How will you respond to the nurse practitioner?


Discussion Questions:

  • How did your response to the case shift when you read about it from a different perspective?
  • What do you see as the most important values for each person involved in the conversation?
  • What are some of the other values and principles that are relevant when considering how to proceed in cases like this?
  • Which factors contribute to making this a difficult conversation?
  • What would the best possible outcome in this case look or sound like?

References:

Halperin, S.A.  2000. How to Manage Parents Unsure About Immunization. CME. January 2000; 62-75. https://www.ucalgary.ca/paed/files/paed/4-halperin-article3.pdf

Zimlich, R. 2018. 4 Tools to Frame Conversations about Vacccines. Contemporary Pediatrics, November 13, 2018.   https://www.contemporarypediatrics.com/pediatric-immunization/4-tools-frame-conversations-about-vaccination

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Talking with Parents about Vaccines for Infants. Provider Resources for Vaccine Conversations with Parents. [Accessed March 12, 2019]  https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/conversations/talking-with-parents.html

Paterson, P., Meurice, F., Stanberry, L.R., Glismann, S., Rosenthal, S.L., Larson,  H.J. 2016. Vaccine hesitancy and healthcare providers. Vaccine, Vol 34 (52), 20 December 2016, p. 6700-6706

TEDx Talks. Tara Haelle. Why Parents Fear Vaccines. Published on May 2nd 2016. TEDxOslo. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ggtkzkoI3eM