The local town council has received a petition signed by more than 500 residents requesting the discontinuation of fluoride in the town’s water supply. Before making a decision on the matter, the council has decided to hold a “town hall” meeting to seek more input and help to educate its members and the audience about the evidence on both sides of the debate.
As the Public Health officer for the area, you have been invited to be a member of the panel in charge of this meeting. Other panel members include the mayor, a local dentist, a family doctor, and the two residents who initiated the petition. On the night of the meeting, the local fire hall is at capacity; the mayor who is chairing the panel asks the two residents to begin the discussion by presenting their concerns with regard to water fluoridation. They make the following remarks:
Resident 1: “Everyone says fluoride in the water prevents cavities. What about looking at what causes the cavities in the first place- junk food, pop, sugary snacks and juices are all stuff that parents should be limiting. Why should we all be forced to ingest fluoride in our water because some parents aren’t doing their job? Like everything else, we are what we eat. Good health starts with what we put on the end of our forks- that is how I raised my children. In addition, a routine oral program and thorough brushing is key to any successful prevention.For those that want to provide their kids with fluoride, there are many readily available treatments and over the counter products.I am a victim of too much fluoride because I chose to eat healthy and drink lots of water. Fluoride severely damaged my thyroid and I am now forced to take pharmaceutical drugs for the remainder of my life.
Fluoride is not only in our water (which is also absorbed through the skin), it is used as a pesticide on our food crops, and even organic food crops could be contaminated if watered with fluoridated city tap water. All beverages produced with water, reconstituted juices, contain fluoride, and for those that still receive fluoride treatments at the dentist, brush three times per day with fluoridated toothpaste and maybe even use fluoridated mouthwash, well, that is FAR MORE than any health organization (CDC, EPA or Health Canada) recommends.
I cannot remove fluoride from my water and am therefore forced to purchase distilled water to use for drinking and cooking. I am one of the lucky ones, as I am able to afford to do this. I was never asked if I wanted this industrial waste dumped into my water supply- it was a decision made for me without my consent or even any input. It was a decision made a long time ago and now it needs to undone.”
Resident 2: “I am for choice. So I would rather choose whether or not I drink a toxic chemical. I think that by giving me no choice, the city is not doing me any favours. I have done my own research, and there is very little credibility on the side that says “fluoridate the water.” Instead many experts say fluoride works best as a topical treatment. Bang on. Use it topically then, by choice, don’t force me to ingest it. I use a fluoride rinse and it has absolutely 100% made a difference in my dental health. I have not changed my diet or oral hygiene habits except for the addition of this rinse, but 4 years strong now with no new cavities. Cavities used to plague me with at least a couple new ones a year. I feel that this should be a personal choice, and if people are concerned about costs for poor communities/people then perhaps a subsidy for toothpaste or fluoride tablets is the answer (but only if those people want to purchase the items).One should also keep in mind the effect of excess fluoride on growing teeth. What if your child really likes water and ingests a lot of fluoridated water? Even dentists admit it’s only useful in the right doses. Fluoride is carcinogenic, so I would like to see statistics on cancer rates vs. fluoridation in the region. Plus, fluoride has been linked to lots of other serious conditions, but we are not told about all that – just that it prevents cavities. The jury is out on whether that is actually true. There are countries who do not add fluoride to their drinking water but their rate of cavities is as good or better than ours. So what is that about?! The town could be saving a ton of money each year by not putting fluoride in the water. It’s a smart move in my opinion.”
- Identify the conflicting values that are relevant to this discussion and select the ones that will guide your response. What is the basis of your choice(s)?
- As the public health officer, how will you respond to these statements?
Some Values and Ethics Issues to Consider
- Respect for autonomy
- Community/ public health ethics
- Compliance with policy
- Patient safety
- Community relationships
- Social justice